There are many other closed-system models such as: scientific management which is reminiscent of the machine model, the bureaucratic model which is the most popular of closed-system models, the goals model which focuses on the achieving of goals and finally the decision model which deals with independent decisions in interrelated departments...
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Open-system models are defined by Campion as: " Characterization of organizations that stresses their greater external environment and seeks to explain organizational behavior by using factors and events occurring both within and outside of the organization (2000). The difference between closed -systems and open - systems is that while closed-system models are often stressing internal incidents, open-system models do not limit themselves and search beyond the internal factors, taking everything into account...