But when beliefs issue in actions that cause harm to others, attempts to prevent those harmful consequences are justifiable.
This would mean when a patient refuses treatment because of a religious belief a doctor must respect that patient's autonomous decision, but why is this not considered a type of constraint? One possibility is the fact that a religion (any form of belief system, by definition) is something chosen and accepted by one's own faith, it is not something physical or a sign of one who is cognitively impaired...
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When these beliefs, according to Ms. Macklin, cause harm to others is the only time when intervention is justifiable; such as the Santerian ritual of scattering of poisonous mercury to ward off bad spirits that bring poor health. When a physician is aware of the beliefs and culture of a patient and the patient "informs" the doctor of these beliefs, conflict can be avoided...